Floods are natural disasters characterized by an overflow of water onto normally dry land, caused by factors like heavy rainfall, rapid snowmelt, or the breach of water containment structures. They can develop slowly or quickly, with flash floods being particularly dangerous due to their sudden nature. Floods can inundate homes, disrupt transportation, and damage infrastructure. They also pose significant risks to life and health, as floodwaters may be contaminated and can lead to the spread of waterborne diseases. The severity of a flood depends on factors like rainfall intensity, terrain, and urban development, which can exacerbate flooding by reducing natural water absorption.